We are excited to share with you the second issue of the R2P Student Journal.
As Dr. Adrian Gallagher states in his introduction to this issue that the purpose of the Journal is to ‘raise questions, issues and concerns facing the R2P’ in its second decade. He identifies four research agendas where students can contribute: climate change and mass violence, the new UN Secretary-General, changing power balances, and the rise in non-state armed groups. To these, we add: gender and R2P, and the relationship between R2P and international criminal justice, particularly the International Criminal Court (ICC). Two articles in this issue focus on this important issue.
Enyeribe Oguh examines the scope and limits of the ICC and looks at mechanisms that can remedy some of the criticisms the ICC faces – primarily the lack of universal jurisdiction, its bias against Africa, and the AU’s response to this perceived bias. As Oguh emphasises, the ICC’s lack of universal jurisdiction means that investigations in places such as Yemen, Syria and Iraq depend on the UN Security Council’s political calculations. Addressing this, Oguh identifies two possible solutions for the ICC to become ‘more than a howling Rottweiler or … just a vexing elephant in the room’.
Oguh’s argument paves the way to Georgiana Epure’s article on the relationship between R2P and the responsibility to prosecute. There exists a complementary relationship between these two responsibilities, which share the goal of protecting people from mass atrocity crimes. However, as Epure argues, this mixture of political and judicial measures may work against this common goal when R2P and the responsibility to prosecute are used simultaneously as conflict management tools in on-going crises.
Moving away from the ICC and towards conceptual questions of the R2P, Joseph Jegat discusses the normative status of R2P, a ‘complex norm with a contested nature’. Examining Pillar III, Jegat argues that ‘contestation is both a normal and beneficial part of R2P’s global diffusion’, examining Brazil’s ‘Responsibility while Protecting’ and China’s ‘Responsible Protection’ concepts.
Caitlyn Duke also analyses R2P’s Pillar III, assessesing the success of NATO’s intervention in Libya. Focusing on NATO’s interpretation of UN Security Council Resolution 1973, she concludes that the success of the first military intervention without host state consent was undermined by the underlying goal of regime change and the lack of post-conflict rebuilding.
We hope you find this second issue of the Journal both interesting and useful, and we look forward to receiving further submissions in the future. In particular, we encourage students to think and write about the research agendas outlined above.
Georgiana Epure and Dominique Fraser
This issue was originally published under our previous title, the Responsibility to Protect Student Journal.
- The Responsibility to Protect: Four Challenges on the Road AheadDr. Adrian Gallagher, University of Leeds, Convenor BISA Working Group on Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect I would like to say congratulations to the R2P Student Coalition here at the University of Leeds. Three years ago, Professor Jason Ralph and I designed a third year module PIED3502 The Responsibility to Protect and Prosecute and it is fantastic toContinue reading “The Responsibility to Protect: Four Challenges on the Road Ahead”
- The International Criminal Court: A Shackled Elephant in the Court Room?Enyeribe Oguh, University of York, United Kingdom Enyeribe is a postgraduate law student at the York Law School. He graduated magna cum laude in law (LLB) from the University of Leeds in 2015. He is interested in international criminal justice and he is currently working on secession and the use of force. It is not in the interestsContinue reading “The International Criminal Court: A Shackled Elephant in the Court Room?”
- The Responsibility to Protect and the Responsibility to ProsecuteGeorgiana Epure, University of Cambridge, UK Georgiana is an editor of the R2P Student Journal. She holds a BA in International Relations from the University of Leeds. As an Undergraduate Research and Leadership Scholar, she worked with the Intervention and International Society Research Cluster at Leeds. In 2015, she founded the R2P Student Coalition atContinue reading “The Responsibility to Protect and the Responsibility to Prosecute”
- A Norm-in-Formation? An Analysis of Brazil and China’s Normative Engagement with the Responsibility to ProtectJoseph Jegat, University of Leeds, United Kingdom Joseph graduated from the University of Leeds in 2016. The question of whether the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) is an established norm in international relations has been the subject of much academic debate in recent years. This paper will argue that R2P is best described not as a fullyContinue reading “A Norm-in-Formation? An Analysis of Brazil and China’s Normative Engagement with the Responsibility to Protect”
- The Responsibility to Protect in the Libyan Intervention: Ultimate Success or International Failure?Caitlyn Duke, The University of Queensland, Australia Caitlyn is a third year BA/LLB student at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, majoring in Peace and Conflict Studies. She works as a Paralegal in the Projects team at King&Wood Mallesons. The 2011 intervention in Libya was the first time the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) authorised the use ofContinue reading “The Responsibility to Protect in the Libyan Intervention: Ultimate Success or International Failure?”